Attributes of the beloved Prophet ﷺ in the Quran

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 Attributes of the beloved Prophet صلَّی اللہ علیہ واٰلہٖ وسلَّم in the Quran

Hafiz Usman Attari (6th year student of Jamiat al-Madinah, Upper Mall Road, Lahore)

The linguistic meaning of attribute (ifāt) is habit, quality, and speciality.[1]  It is used to denote every habit of a human, whether good or bad. However, the final Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم is a personality whose every attribute and aspect is perfect and unmatched. The Quran highlights several of the Prophet’s attributes, ten of which are explored in this article.

1. Khātam al-Nabiyyīn – Final Prophet

Allah announced his attribute of being the final Prophet, which is a foundational part of our faith.

مَا کَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ اَبَاۤ  اَحَدٍ مِّنۡ رِّجَالِکُمۡ وَ لٰکِنۡ رَّسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ وَ خَاتَمَ  النَّبِیّٖنَ ؕ       وَ  کَانَ اللّٰہُ  بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمًا (۴۰

Translation from Kanz al-Iman: ˹The Beloved Prophet˺ Muhammad is not the father of any man amongst you. Yes, he is the Messenger of Allah and the Final amongst all the Prophets. And Allah knows everything.[2]

2. Rama li al-ʿĀlamīn Mercy for the Worlds

One of his great attributes is that he is a mercy for all worlds, including all prophets, messengers, angels, humans, this world, and the Hereafter.

وَ مَاۤ  اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ اِلَّا رَحۡمَۃً  لِّلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ (۱۰۷

Translation from Kanz al-Iman: And We did not send you ˹dear beloved˺ but as mercy for all the worlds.[3]

3, 4. Raʾūf and Raīm – Kind and Merciful

Allah Almighty declares:

 لَقَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌ مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ عَزِیۡزٌ عَلَیۡہِ مَا عَنِتُّمۡ حَرِیۡصٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ بِالۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ رَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ (۱۲۸

Translation from Kanz al-Iman: Indeed, there has come to you that Messenger from amongst yourselves; heavy upon him is your suffering; he immensely desires your well-being; utmost kind, merciful for the Muslims.[4]

5. Ummiyy - Untutored

One attribute of the beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم is him being ummiyy, i.e., untaught by any human but directly by Allah Almighty:

                                                اَلَّذِیۡنَ یَتَّبِعُوۡنَ الرَّسُوۡلَ النَّبِیَّ الۡاُمِّیَّ الَّذِیۡ یَجِدُوۡنَہٗ مَکۡتُوۡبًا عِنۡدَہُمۡ فِی التَّوۡرٰىۃِ وَ الۡاِنۡجِیۡلِ ۫  

Translation from Kanz al-Iman: Those who will be in service to this messenger (the Prophet Muhammad) who is untutored ˹in any usual system of learning; rather, taught by Allah only˺; the Conveyor of the unseen news, whom they will find mentioned in the Tawrah and the Injeel ˹which is˺ with them.[5]

6. Layyin – Soft-hearted

The soft-heartedness of the beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم is such that Allah states:

          فَبِمَا رَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ لِنۡتَ لَہُمۡ ۚ      

Translation from Kanz al-Iman:So, what a great mercy it is from Allah that, ˹O beloved˺, you became soft-hearted towards them.”[6]

7. ayyī - Modest

This is a most superior attribute and an integral aspect of faith. The Quran mentions this attribute of the beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم openly:

                        اِنَّ ذٰلِکُمۡ کَانَ یُؤۡذِی النَّبِیَّ فَیَسۡتَحۡیٖ مِنۡکُمۡ ۫         

Translation from Kanz al-Iman: Indeed, there used to be harm to the Prophet in this, so he was, ˹out of modesty˺, considerate towards you.”[7]

The beloved Prophet’s صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم modesty is mentioned here, and he is the most modest of all.

8, 9, 10. Shāhid, Mubashir, Nadhīr – Witness, Harbinger, and Warner

The Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم is a witness. By extension, this means that he is present (āir) and witnessing (ir). He is also a harbinger, giving glad tidings of rewards, and a warner, cautioning humankind of punishment:

 یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّبِیُّ  اِنَّاۤ  اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ شَاہِدًا وَّ مُبَشِّرًا وَّ  نَذِیۡرًا (ۙ۴۵)

Translation from Kanz al-Iman: Dear Prophet, ˹who conveys unseen news˺, We have indeed sent you as a present eyewitness, a harbinger, and warner.”[8]

[1] Feroz al-Lughat, p. 914

[2] al-Quran, 33:40

[3] al-Quran, 21:107

[4] al-Quran, 9:128

[5] al-Quran, 7:157

[6] al-Quran, 3:159

[7] al-Quran, 33:53

[8] al-Quran, 33:45




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